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Five Components of Strategy
There are five components—or sets of issues—within a well-developed strategy:

1. Scope. The scope of an organization refers to the breadth of its strategic domain—the number and types of industries, product lines, and market segments it competes in or plans to enter. Decisions about an organization's strategic scope should reflect management's view of the firm's purpose or mission. This common thread among its various activities and product-markets defines the essential nature of what its business is and what it should be.

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2. Goals and objectives. Strategies should also detail desired levels of accomplishment on one or more dimensions of performance—such as volume growth, profit contribution, or return on investment—over specified time periods for each of those businesses and product-markets and for the organization as a whole.

3. Resource deployments. Every organization has limited financial and human resources. Formulating a strategy also involves deciding how those resources are to be obtained and allocated, across businesses, product-markets, functional departments, and activities within each business or product-market.

4. Identification of a sustainable competitive advantage. One important part of any strategy is a specification of how the organization will compete in each.business and product-market within its domain. How can it position itself to develop and sustain a differential advantage over current and potential competitors? To answer such questions, managers must examine the market opportunities in each business and product-market and the company's distinctive competencies or strengths relative to its competitors.

5. Synergy. Synergy exists when the firm's businesses, product-markets, resource deployments, and competencies complement and reinforce one another. Synergy enables the total performance of the related businesses to be greater than it would otherwise be: the whole becomes greater than the sum of its parts.

John Mullins, Orville Walker, Jr.,Harper Boyd, Jean-Claude Larreche, Marketing Management: A Strategic Decision-Making Approach, McGraw-Hill/Irwin.

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